Wheel Studs & Screws
Wheel studs are threaded fasteners which are permanently mounted to the vehicle's hub. Once the wheel has been placed on the studs, lug nuts are fastened to the end of the studs which secures the wheel to the vehicle. The number of studs on each wheel varies depending on the size and weight of the vehicle. Heavy vehicles are likely to have five or more studs while a smaller vehicle may only use four. Some vehicles have bolts which secure the wheel instead of studs. These bolts are screwed directly into the hub in order to provide the same fit that a stud would give. There are many different sizes of studs and bolts that fit many vehicles, no matter the size of the wheel. These components receive a great deal of stress and tension. The metal used to make these components is typically heat treated in order to prevent bending under stress and tension.
Most vehicles have studs instead of screws. Studs are preferred over screws due to their ease of use and reliability. During the installation of a wheel that has screws, the wheel must be aligned and held in place in order for the screws to be slid in to place. With studs however, the wheel is lifted and set into place by one person, and tightened down with lug nuts. Bolts are also prone to loosening, which can be dangerous. In order to prevent this, a thread locking fluid is applied to the screw during its insertion.
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