A carburetor is a device on a vehicle,which is responsible for mixing air and fuel together for the engine to use. Having a proper working carburetor ensures that the vehicle gets a rich mixture of fuel and air, which allows the vehicle to be more efficient. Most vehicles typically have one carburetor, but some larger high performance engines use multiple carburetors,in order to keep up with the large amounts of mixtures in the engine.
A carburetor is a basic pipe,which regulates airflow before it is allowed to flow into the inlet manifold of the engine. This pipe is called the venturi, which narrows and widens in specific sections. This narrowing compresses the air into a smaller path, which makes it speed up before it is mixed in with the fuel. Below the venturi is a butterfly valve called the power valve. This valve can be rotated to allow air flow, or closed to restrict air from flowing into the intake manifold. Having the ability to block airflow through the carburetor throat allows for better regulation over engine power, and speed.
Before air enters through the valve, it is mixed with fuel, which is what causes the mixture to be combustible, when it enters the engine. This fuel is introduced into the air stream through small holes at the narrowest part of the venturi. Fuel flow is regulated using jets, which introduces more fuel, if there is more air flowing through the carburetor. Having a rich mixture of air and fuel is necessary for the engine to work properly. Since fuel is denser than air, a device called the accelerator pump is used to help the fuel, flow faster. The amount of fuel being released is based on the engine speed, and its load.
The carburetor is based around the engine vacuum, which it uses to regulate air and fuel. This vacuum powers most of the inner workings of a carburetor,and also allows the carburetor to make adjustments based on the engine speed. Rubber hoses are connected in many areas on a carburetor and have fuel flowing through them, which is pressurized by the engine vacuum.
Carburetors have multiple venturi or barrels, which allows for more air flow. Vehicles with multiple barrels typically have larger displacement, and are more focused around performance. Multi barrel carburetors can be configured to send a different amount, of air/fuel mixture. They can also be actuated in a progressive fashion, which means that a second barrel does not open until the primary barrels are completely open. The ability to activate the barrels in this way maximizes airflow through the primary barrels at most engine speeds, which in turn, maximizes the pressure signal from the venturis.
Carburetors are categorized by their cubic feet per minute. The categorization of carburetors is important when determining what size carburetor is needed, for a specific size engine. The cfm is determined by measuring the amount of dry air a carburetor can handle, at full throttle. This means that a carburetor with a higher cfm rating is going to be larger than a carburetor with a lower cfm. Carburetors with a larger cfm number do not necessarily need more fuel than a smaller carburetor,in order to produce more power. Engines need a certain amount of air and fuel,in order to provide maximum power, which is why having larger amounts of air effects the fuel flow.
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